Sites in Caves and Gravels
Human Paleontology – Cultural Remains  |  General  |  Eoliths  |  Chellean  |  Acheulean  |  Mousterian  |  Aurignacean  |  Solutrean  |  Magdalenian  |  Azilian  |  Late Neolithic, Robenhausian, Dolmens, Lake Dwellings  |  Bronze, Megalthic  |  Iron

Human Paleontology – Skeletal Remains  |  General Evolution  |  Pithecanthropus  |  Foxhall  |  Piltdown  |  Heidelberg  |  Neanderthal  |  Cro-Magnon  |  Azilian  |  Hesperopithecus  |  Peking or Peiping Man  |  Homo sapiens

Human Paleontology – North America  |  General  |  Mound Builders

History of Geology and Science


754.A.1 Pleistocene and Recent Man. Table showing successive cultures and approximate dates.
754.A.2 Diagram showing succeession of prehistoric and historic ages in Egypt and Europe.
754.A.3 Prehistoric human cultures recognized in Mongolia.


754.B.1 Vertical section through Gallenreuth Cave, Franconia.
754.B.2 Map of northern Spain and Southern France showing caves with Paleolithic and Neolithic (mostly Magdalenian) human remains.
754.B.3 Stratification of culture deposits in a rock shelter, Europe. Castillo, near Santander, Northern Spain. Mousterian to Azilian.
754.B.4 Diagram of mouth of cavern of Castillo.
754.B.5 Laugerie Haute at junction of Vezere and Beune Rivers, Dordogne, France. Rock Shelter.
754.B.6 Rock Shelter of Laugerie Basse, Dordogne, S. France.
754.B.7 The Villiage and shelter of Cro Magnon, Dordogne, S. France.
754.B.8 Stratification of culture deposits in river gravel. Europe. Chellean to Mousterian. Chelles on the Marne, France.
754.B.9 Sub-Red Crag culture. Pit at Bramford, near Ipswich, Eng.
754.B.10 Sub-Red Crag and Red Crag culture. Foxhall Pit near Ipswich England.
754.B.11 Small overhanging rock ledge, protected by ice curtain which endures all winter. Suggests possible condition of some of the European rock shelters. Fitchburg, Mass.
754.B.12 200 ft. sea cliffs, SE of Cromer, SE England. Type locality of Cromerian culture is at tide mark. For explanation read Moir, Antiquity of Man in East Anglia, p. 41.


754.C.1 Terrace bordering Nile Valley, extending to 80 feet above river. Water in view is not Nile. Early or Middle Pliestocene gravels of terrace carry Chellean and Acheulean implements at this locality. Gravels on a lower later terrace, nearby, contain abundant Mousterian implements. Sedment Monestary, near Hawara Channel to Faiyum, Egypt.
754.C.2 Mousterian beach cliff of ancient Faiyum Lake; 15 to 20 feet above present Nile floor, 112 feet above sea level, 259 feet above present Faiyum Lake. Mousterian implements abundant in these gravels. Faiyum Basin, Nile Valley, Egypt.
754.C.3 Left: Dissected, gravel-strewn floor of Mousterian Lake, 112 ft. A.T. Center: Cliff cut by higher Sebilian Lake, 92 ft. A.T. Right: Undissected Sebilian Lake floor. Faiyum Basin, Nile Valley, Egypt.
754.C.4 Left: Graveled floor of Higher Sebilian Lake, 92 ft. A.T. Mousterian Center: Cliff of Lower Sebilian Lake, 74 ft. A.T. Mousterian implements. Right: Floor of Lower Sebilian Lake. A still lower beach at 57 feet A.T. carries Neolithic implements. Philadelphia, Faiyum Basin. Nile Valley, Egypt.
754.C.5 South shore of Birket Karun, salt lake relic of the great Faiyum Lake. In bottom of Faiyum basin, alt. 147 ft. below sea level. Beach of marine shells now living in lake. land cultivated by water from Nile. Faiyum Basin, Nile Valley, Egypt.
754.C.6 Wind Erosion on hard Eocene limestone. Indicates agent probably largely responsible for erosion of the Faiyum Basin to below sea level. Faiyum Basin, Nile Valley, Egypt.



765.A.1 Chipping flint by blows with a stone.
765.A.2 Chipping flint by pressure with a piece of bone or horn.
756.A.3 Implements, Eolith to Neolithic, Mafflean Epoch. Chellean and upper Robenhausian Epochs.
756.A.4 Acheulean, Solutrrian & Magdalenian implements from Kent’s Hole, Eng.
756.A.5 Right: humanly struck flint flake showing its characteristics. Upper left: Chellean implement. Lower left: Acheulean implement. See slide 756.A.6.
756.A.6 Left: method of holding and striking Chellean implement of 756.A.5. Right: method of holding and striking Acheulean implement of 756.A.5.
756.A.7 Flints flaked by nature from Thanet sands of Belle-Assize. Lower Eocene.
756.A.8 Eoliths from base of Eocene, near Paris, France.


756.B.1 7 pound hand-axe from the Cromer Forest Bed, Cromer Cliffs.
756.B.2 Flint implements from the Cromer Forest Bed, Cromer Cliffs and East Runton.
756.B.3 Cromerian Culture of SE England. Rostro-carinate implements.
756.B.4 Cromerian Culture of SE England. Rostro-carinate implements.
756.B.5 Cromerian Culture. Late type of rostro-carinate implement with analysis of its manufacture.
756.B.6 Foxhallian Culture. 3 implements from the Red Crag. Foxhall Hall, Ipswich, SE England.
756.B.7 Eoliths, from ancient upland gravels of SE Englandearly glacial or pre-glacial, Some of them are rounded by stream action before inclusion in the gravel. Analyzed by Reid Moir to determine nature of origin. From 1.5 to 2 inches long.
756.B.8 Pleistocene or Pliocene, Eolithic implements found with Piltdown skull.
756.B.9 Pre-Chellean flint implements from the pit in which the Piltdown skull was found, SE England.
756.B.10 Strepyan implements, St. Acheul, France.
756.B.11 Pre-Chellean and Chellean culture stations in Europe.


756.D.1 Chellean culture, typical implements, from St. Acheul.
756.D.2 Chellean Implements from St. Acheul.


756.E.1 Acheulean culture stations, Europe
756.E.2 Lower Acheulean Implements from St. Acheul


756.F.1 Mousterian culture stations of southwestern Europe.
756.F.2 Distributions of Mousterian stations in Europe.
756.F.3 Flint Implements of the Acheulean and Mousterian.
756.F.4 Aurignacian culture stations.


756.G.1 Aurignacean Implements.
756.G.2 Aurignacean grattoir carine, principal types.
756.G.3 Aurignacean pointe. Points with abrupt retouch on one edge.
756.G.4 Aurignacean pointe a cran.
756.G.5 Aurignacean and solutrean. Evolution from lames a coches to pointes a soie.


756.H.1 Solutrean culture stations, Europe
756.H.2 Solutrean flint implements.


756.I.1 Magdalenian culture stations, Europe.
756.I.2 Magdalenian flint implements.
756.I.3 Magdalenian carving in ivory and stone.
756.I.4 Magdalenian arrow straighteners.
756.I.5 Paintings from Roof of Cavern Altamira.
756.I.6 Polychrome paintings from Cavern Altamira.
756.I.7 Mammoth on Ivory by Cave-men La Madeleine, france.
756.I.8 Engravings, mammoth and horse, Les Combarelles.
756.I.9 Figures various animals from Gourdan and Lorthet.
756.I.10 Figures of reindeer. From Saint Marcel, and Lorthet, Hautes Pyrenees.
756.I.11 Aurignacean Figurines, human.
756.I.12 Three Figures of Women from the group at Cogul.
756.I.13 Aurignacean or Magdalenian. Two Bisons modeled in clay, Tuc d’u Audoubert


756.J.1 Pleistocene – Recent. Azilian tardenoisian culture stations, Europe.
756.J.2 Azilian Culture from Caver of Mas d’Azil. Harpoons and “lettered” pebbles.


756.L.1 Late Neolithic grave, Westergotland, Sweden.
756.L.2 Late Neolithic. Dolman (above), and grave, Southern Sweden.
756.L.3 Late Neolithic dolmen, possibly a temple, near Saumur, France. 65 ft. ;ong, 24 ft. wide, 15 ft. above ground. The vertical slabs are buried 9 ft. deep.
756.L.4 Late Neolithic. Map showing distribution of graves in Southern Sweden. This stage is subsequent to the Littorina Sea, and relation of sea to and essentially as at present.
756.L.5 Late Neolithic. Typical polished stone axes and flint.


756.M.1 Neolithic Bronze Culture, Megalithic type. Stonehenge.
756.M.2 Neolithic Bronze Culture, Megalithic type. Stonehenge.
756.M.3 Neolithic Bronze Culture, Megalithic type. Stonehenge. Restoration in Salisbury Museum, England.
756.M.4 Neolithic Bronze Culture, Megalithic type, age uncertain, about 4000-5000 years ago. Carnac, Brittany, France. A Megalithic “allignment”.
756.M.5 Bronze implements of the older Bronze Age.
756.M.6 Bronze implements of the newer Bronze Age.
756.M.7 Bronze Age. Maximum expansion in Europe. After Madison Grant.


756.N.1 Iron implements of the Iron Age.



758.A.1 Profile of the skull of Pithecanthropus Erectus, compared with those of lowest man and highest apes.
758.A.2 Diagrams to illustrate the fallaceous use of the nasi-inion line.
758.A.3 Paleolithic. Map of Southwestern Europe showing locations of human skeletal remains of Neanderthal and Pre-Neanderthal man.
758.A.4 Restorations of skulls of Pithecanthropus, Eoanthropus, Neanderthal, Cro Magnon Man.
758.A.5 Restorations of heads of Pithecanthropus, Eoanthropus, Neanderthal, Cro Magnon Man, by Howard MacGregor.
758.A.6 Diagram. Phylogeny of the Primates, Cretaceous to recent, showing chief living lines.
758.A.7 Phylogeny of the Anthropoidea, with drawings of skulls of Pleistocene – recent types. Eocene to Present.
758.A.8 Chart, Eocene to recent showing succession and possible relationship of lower primates and human races.
758.A.9 Family tree of man, A.M.N.H, with skulls
758.A.10 Chart showing theoretic dispersal of human races from central Asia.
758.A.11 Skeleton of Notharotus (Eocene), chimpanzee and man, same attitude.
758.A.12 Feet of gorilla and man, muscles.
758.A.13 Hands of gorilla and man, muscles.
758.A.14 Faces and hands of Human and intermediate mammal to contrast hand claw, nail and nasal development, eye-direction, cranial capacity. Portrait of a Lady with Ermine or Stoat. Museum at Cracaw, Poland, almost surely by Leonardo da Vinci.


758.B.1 Pithecanthropus erectus, or Java Man, from Trinil, Java. Casts.


758.C.1 Foxhall jaw. Discovered 1855 by workmen in pit at Foxhall, England.


758.D.1 Piltdown skull, Eoanthropus dawsoni. Casts of skull fragments and implements, Piltdown, Eng.
758.D.2 Piltdown skull, Eoanthropus dawsoni, as restored by Smith Woodward, 2nd reconstruction.
758.D.3 Piltdown Man. Restoration interesting only because based on assumption that the lower jaw belongs to the skull, and because the artist thought he had to make the face ape-like.


758.E.1 Sand pit at Mauer near Heidelberg where the lower jaw of Homo Heidelbergensis was found.
758.E.2 Human lower jaw. Homo Heidelbergensis.
758.E.3 Drawing of Jaw of heidelberg man contrasted with that of modern European, and chimpanzee.
758.E.4 Esquimaux, Heidelberg and Orang jaws, side view.
758.E.5 Early stone age man, Heidelberg and Piltdown man, case in A.M.N.H.


758.F.1 Skull of Neanderthal Man, from cavern of La Chapelle-aux-Saints.
758.F.2 Skull of Mousterian Man.
758.F.3 Homo Neanderthalensis: reconstructed head.
758.F.4 Mousterian man, as exhibited in the A.M.N.H.
758.F.5 Rhodesian Man, front view of skull cast.
758.F.6 Rhodesian Man, side view of skull cast.
758.F.7 First discovered Neanderthal skull found in 1857 in the Neanderthal Cave on the wall of the Neander valley.
758.F.8 Mousterian Man as reconstructed by the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
758.F.9 Mousterian Man and his family life as reconstructed by the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.


758.G.1 Homo Aurignacensis Hauseri, from Rock Shelter of Combe-Capelle (Dordogne)
758.G.2 Magdalenian, Chancelade skull, France.
758.G.3 Cro-Magnon or Magdalenian man, as exhibited in the A.M.N.H.


758.H.1 Azilian Man, Transitional between Paleo- and Neolithic periods. Case in A.M.N.H.


758.I.1 Hesperopithecus haroldcooki, 2nd upper molar? Compared with teeth of chimpanzee.


758.J.1 Peiping skull discovered Dec. 2, 1929, just as taken from cave deposits.
758.J.2 Peking skull compared with Pithecanthropus. Top view.
758.J.3 Peking skull compared with Pithecanthropus. Bottom view.
758.J.4 Peking skull (left) compared with Pithecanthropus (right). Posterior, side and anterior views.
758.J.5 Peking skull, profile superposed on Pithecanthropus and Piltdown skull.


758.K.1 Homo sapiens. Modern Englishman, Bertrand Russell.



759.A.1 Chronology of Old and New World cultural stages compared.


759.B.1 Mound Builders. Burial mounds at end of graded way, Piketon, Ohio.
759.B.2 Mound Builders. The Graded Way, Piketon, Ohio.
759.B.3 Feuert Village Site, 4 miles North of Portsmouth, on East side of Scioto Valley.
759.B.4 Feuert Village Site, 4 miles North of Portsmouth.
759.B.5 Mound Builders, Fort Ancient Ohio. Inside the wall of the old fort, west side.
759.B.6 Mound Builders, Fort Ancient Ohio. Inside the wall of the old fort, east side.
759.B.7 Mound Builders, Fort Ancient, Ohio. The great gate from inside.
759.B.8 Mound Builders, Serpent Mound, Adams County, Ohio.
759.B.9 Mound Builders, Hopewell group, a burial site on N. Fork of Paint Creek.
759.B.10 Hopewell group, the type station of the Hopewell culture.
759.B.11 Mound Builders, Newark group, a ceremonial group.
759.B.12 Mound Builders, Newark group.
759.B.13 Mound Builders, Newark group, the wall of the circle.
759.B.14 Mound Builders, Newark group, the wall of the circle.
759.B.15 Mound Builders and Indians. Flint Ridge, distant view.
759.B.16 Mound Builders and Indians. Flint Ridge, Block of Flint.
759.B.17 Mound Builders and Indians. Flint Ridge, Flint Pit.
759.B.18 Mound Builders and Indians. Flint Ridge, Corn Field in old workshop.
759.B.19 Mound Builders and Indians. Flint Ridge, Corn Field in old workshop.
759.B.20 Mound Builders and Indians. Flint Ridge, Finishing shop.
759.B.21 Mound Builders and Indians. Flint Ridge, Finishing shop.
759.B.22 Mound builders, excavation for Scioto fire clay, probably less than 50 years old. This is on the site of excavations made by mound builders for the fire clay, “The Ohio Pipestone.” The Tremper Mound pipes were made from this material. Feurt Hill, 4 miles north of Portsmouth, Ohio.
759.B.23 Mound builders, mound overlooking Scioyo Valley, Omega, Ohio.


769.-.1 William Fabrey of Hilden holding a typical Neanderthal skull.
769.-. 2 Window to Wisdom, Fountain Street Baptist Church, Grand rapids Michigan. Painted glass, designed and executed by Paris and Wiley of New York. They are to be credited when slide is used.
769.-.3 Sir Charles Lyell. 1797-1876.
769.-.4 Rev. John Stevens Henslow. 1796-1871 Professor of Botany, Cambridge, for 12 years. Darwin was his favorite pupil. Henslow was responsible for Darwin’s best work while in Cambridge.
769.-.5 Alfred Russel Wallace. 1878.
769.-.6 Einstein and de Sitter (of Holland). International School of Advanced Science, at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Cal. Jan. 1932. A climax of mathematical learning.
769.-.7 Father Stephen Richarz S.D.V. of Techny, Ill. Roman catholic interpreter of geological history, especially in history of ancient man. Died, Jl. 15, 1934, age 60. Zenolith in granite intrusion near Mellen, Wisconsin.
769.B.1 Not Used
769.B.2 William Buckland, age about 59, his famous and always present blue bag, loaded with specimens.
769.B.3 William Buckland, Mrs. Buckland and Frank, at home.
769.B.4 William Buckland, lecturing in the Ashmolean, Oxford, Univ.
769.B.5 William Buckland, Class expedition to Shotover Hill.
769.B.6 Entrance to Kirkdale cave, 25 miles from York.
769.B.7 Buckland entering Kirkdale Cavern from a caricature.
769.C.1 Charles Darwin with his sister Catherine, 1816. Age 7 years.
769.C.2 Charles Darwin. About time of Beagle Voyage. Pencil drawing found at Cambridge almost identical with Geo. Richman’s drawing of 1840
769.C.3 Darwin’s home at Down. 1880. From watercolor. To which he moved Sept 14, 1842
769.C.4 Charles Darwin about 1854. Age about 45 years. 1854 completed publication of Monographs on recent and fossil barnacles. “Sept. 9. Finished packing up all my Cerripedes.” “Sept. 9. Began sorting notes for Species Theory.”
769.C.5 Charles Darwin about 1874. Age about 65. From photo by his son at Down House. Descent of Man, 1871; Expression of Emotions 1872. Effects of Cross and Self Fertilization, 1876.
769.C.6 Charles Darwin at Down. 1881, age 72. Died Apr. 19, 1882.
769.D.1 Thomas Henry Huxley. 1846, age 21. When assigned the post of Assistant Surgeon on H.M.S. Rattlesnake.
769.D.2 Thomas Henry Huxley. 1857, age 32. In 1854, he had succeeded Forbes as Lecturer to the School of Mines and Naturalist and Paleontologist to the Geological Survey, Jermyn St., London. Here he remained for 35 years. The Oxford meeting was in 1860.
769.D.3 Thomas Henry Huxley. 1874. Age 49. Pres. Addresses of Geol. Soc. 1870. Was at his peak of acheivement as a scientist, in the beginning of his period as an educator, and popularizer.
769.D.4 Thomas Henry Huxley. 1890. Age 65. Scientific production past, still a vigorous and prolific essayist.
769.D.5 Thomas Henry Huxley and his grandson Julian. Jan. 1895. Age 70. Died June 29, 1895. julian is a well known biologist.
769.E.1 Tenth century zodiac, the signs tied up with different parts of the body, the seasons at the four corners, Christ’s figure shows how these pagan astrological concepts are tied to Christianity of the time.
769.E.2 Zodiac of about 1400 with signs more graphically linked to the microcosm in the human body.
769.E.3 Frontispiece to Epitome of Ptolemy’s Almagest (Mathematics of Astronomy). Venice 1496. Shoing armillary sphere, with signs of zodiac (those in rear reversed in order.)
769.E.4 Kepler’s horoscope of Field Marshal Wallenstein.
769.E.5 Music of the Spheres according to Kepler, from the Harmony of the World (De Harmonice Mundi) 1619, in which the Third Law was announced.
769.E.6 Poor Richard’s Almanac, 1736. Showing positions of planets, sun and moon in zodiacal signs, and weather predictions.
769.E.7 Modern patent-medicine almanac with signs of zodiac graphically linked with parts of the human body. A remnant of medievalism, of little significance.
769.E.8 Dr. Jaynes Almanac for 1934, outside front cover.
769.E.9 Modern patent-medicine almanac, with signs of zodiac graphically linked with parts of the human body. Note addition of Uranus and Neptune. Dr. Jaynes Almanac. 1934. Inside front cover and 1st page.
769.E.10 Position of heavenly bodies in zodiacal signs with weather predictions. Dr. Jayne’s Almanac. 1934, pp. 4 & 5.
769.E.11 False “science” erected into a system suspected of charlatanry. An advertisement in the Cleveland News, March, 1932.
769.E.12 Illustration of Numerology. (This followed the death of Lindbergh’s son by kinappers. March 1932). The perversion of mathematical learning to conclusions without foundation. The formulas used are “scientific” in the method of application (to the extent of following a rigorous routine) but the assumptions on which it is based are worthless.
769.F.1 Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system of Universe as found in Dante’s Divine Comedy. Represents opinion and belief of 1300-1320.
769.F.2 Universe of Petrus Apianus, a very able and influential geographer of Ingolstadt, Bavaria, contemporary of Copernicus 2nd quarter of the 16th century. If he had accepted Copernicus’ system, it would have been a great influence on thought of the next 50 years.
769.F.3 The Solar System of Nicolaus Copernicus, 1543. De Revolutionibus Oribum Coelestiam.
769.G.1 The Globe (Earth) of Crates Mallos (died 145 B.C.). The fourfold division of the lands is based on Pythagorean theory. The antipodes were denied by Churchmen until Magellan circumnavigated the globe in 1519. This globe is one of the insignia of royalty, on scepters and crowns. The original seems to be known only from references to it in the Geography of Strabon, who died about 20 A.D.
769.G.2 Claudius Ptolemy’s map of world. About A.D. 150. A recent drawing from Ptolemy’s Geography which contain names of 8000 places with the latitude and longitude of each. Oldest known copy of Ptolemy’s Geography is 12th or 13th Century, in a monastary at Mt. Athos, Greece.
769.G.3 Earth according to Cosmas Indicopleustes, 535 A.D. Compare it with Euro-Asia-Africa on Mallus, Slide 769.G.1
769.G.4 6. Earth according to Cosmas Indicopleustes, 535 A.D. 7. The Universe of Cosmas Indicopleustes. 8. The sun rising and setting behind the great hill–looking north, with its paths at solstices and equinoxes.
769.G.5 Earth (Circular T Map) by Isidore, Bishop of Seville, 600 to 630 A.D. Note Jerusalem center and Paradise (Adam’s). Earth, (oval type) 8th Century. Old church library at Albi, Tarn, Southern France. Note features shown in Cosmas, but change in orientation.
769.G.6 Mappa Mundi of St. Beatus (Spain) (776 A.D.) in his Commentaries on the Apocalypse. Copy of 1203 A.D. One of the earliest Christan maps and a source of numerous later maps. 11th Century copy of World map in Sallust’s De bello Jugurthio. (Sallust, Roman historian, 83-34 B.C.) To show survival of the T map along with the oval map.
769.G.7 The Hereford Map. Hereford Cathedral, Eng. about 1280. An essentially identical map, larger and more detail of date 1484, found in an old monastary at Ebstorf, Hanover.
769.G.8 Map of World. Rudimetum Novitiorum, 1475. The first printed map of unquestionable date. “with the aid of the art of printing newly invented by the special grace of God to the redemption of the faithful.” Sources in earlier intellectual Christian maps.
769.G.9 Portolano map, Barentszoon, 1595. An almost unaltered copy of a 14th Century map.
769.G.10 Portolano map of eastern half of Mediterranean. Vesconti, 1311. Charts developed for sailors, as a by-product of navigation. Earliest known is 13th Century (Pisa) but probably originated in 11th Century. Based on observation of direction and distance, and source and production were technical. (They show no influence from maps produced by the learned of the day, whose sources were traditional and often ancient.) The producers of “learned” maps either never contacted these sources or disregarded them.
769.G.11 Ptolemy’s map of known earth, Rome 1490. 7th printed edition. Maps of 1490 and other printed editions are essentially identical with the maps of the 12th or 13th Century. Ptolemy in the Vatopedi monastary at Mt. Athos, Greece, altho several successive copyings intervened.
769.G.12 Mediterranean sea, contrasting Ptolemy’s maps with a Portolan map of 1339 which had been made from experience of sailors without contact with Ptolemy’s work.
769.G.13 Behaim’s Globe, 1492. Nuremburg. 40 inches diam. pasteboard covered with parchment. Based on Ptolemy, M. Polo, Portuguese discoveries, (he had been in Portugal from 1484-1489), and his own fictitious inventions of detail on the west coast of Africa. (The last to impress his fellow townsmen.)
769.G.14 Earth map, Rome, 1508. Ninth edition of Ptolemy. The first map to include Spanish-Portuguese discoveries. Shows how “Ptolemy” was evolving with growth of knowledge.
769.G.15 Lenox Globe, 1510. Engraved on Copper ball, now in Lenox Library, New York City. Diameter 4.5″
769.G.16 Earth map. Venice, 1548. Ptolemy, 28th edition, which contained 26 of Ptolemy’s maps and 34 others.
769.G.17 Earth map Venice, 1548. Ptolemy 28th edition. Set up as a sailing chart.
769.G.18 Earth map, Venice, 1561. Ptolemy, 30th edition. the firstdivision of the map into two hemispheres, (it had been divided into two parts in 1512.)
769.G.19 Earth map. Mercator, 1569. First map on Mercator’s projection. Powerful influence on navigation. Single copy only known in Paris.
769.G.20 Earth map. Hakluyt, London, 1599. Almost first map in which Australis, Antarctic continent is removed from proximity to S. tip of S. America.
769.H.1 Bashford Dean