Volcanoes, Active  |  Hawaii  |  Mt. Pelee  |  La Soufriere  |  Vesuvius  |  Katmai, Alaska  |  Lassen Peak, Cal.  |  Lava Sheet Flows  |  Tuffs and Breccias  |  The Fumarole Stage  |  Extinct Volcanoes; The Cycle of Erosion



361.A.1 Lower cinder cone on the slopes of Mt. Aetna, 1892.
361.A.2 Ash cone, Mt. St. Augustine, Cook Inlet, Alaska.
361.A.3 Outer view of crater, composed of rolling cinder, Ira Zu volcano, Costa Rica.
361.A.4 Mt. Wrangell, Alaska, an active volcano.
361.A.5 Krakatoa after its explosive eruption.


361.B.1 New Lake, Hawaiin Islands.
361.B.2 A congealed lava cascade, Hawaii.
361.B.3 Flow of lava, Pahoehoe, Hawaii.
361.B.4 Ropy flow of lava, Hawaii.
361.B.5 The Hawaiian Islands.
361.B.6 Island of Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Advanced dissection (late youth) of long extinct volcanes at northwestern end of chain.
361.B.7 Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Old volcanic island completely dissected. Recent crater at Diamond Head.
361.B.8 Island of Oahu, Hawaiian Ids. Mature dissection on slopes of long extinct volcano. View from Nuuanu, Pali.
361.B.9 Island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands Wall of Iao Valley, youthful stage of dissection, less advanced than on Islands to north west.
361.B.10 Island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Extinct crater of Haleakala (world’s largest extinct). Recent cones on old crater floor.
361.B.11 Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands. Newest of Hawaiian chain at south east end. Undissected active cones. Recoreded flows in white.
361.B.12 Crater of Mauna Loa, 13,675 feet. Island of Hawaii.
361.B.13 Crater of Kilauea, with Halemaumau or the Fire Pit in center, 6000 feet. Island of Hawaii.
361.B.14 Slowly creeping tongues of Pahoehoe lava, floor of Halemaumau, Kilauea. Island of Hawaii.
361.B.15 River of lava flowing 15 miles per hour. Halemaumau, Kilauea, Island of Hawaii.
361.B.16 Tunnel in lava through which the river of lava (361.B.15) flowed a few weeks before. Halemaumau, Island of Hawaii.
361.B.17 Extraordinary activity in Halemaumau, Kilauea, Island of Hawaii.
361.B.18 Hawaii, Kilauea. Interior of Halemaumau pit with its lava lake overflowing the inner floor in foreground. The crags are up lifted old floors. Sept. 20, 1921.
361.B.18a Hawaii, Kilauea. Interior of Halemaumau pit with its lava lake overflowing the inner floor in foreground. The crags are up lifted old floors. Sept. 20, 1921.
361.B.19 Hawaii, Kilauea. Running flow from cone southwest of Halemaumau pit, showing live toes in foreground and ropy lava on right. Feb. 9, 1921.
361.B.20 Hawaii, Kilauea. Northeastern gas blow-cone on edge of Halemaumau pit. On upper left, pile of snaky trickle lava from it. Frontal toes of this lava are in motion, oozing out red hot from inside the heap. April 17, 1919.
361.B.21 Hawaii, Kilauea. A flaming and spurting gas cone over lava fountain near lava lake in pit. At night, Mar. 30, 1917


361.C.1 Ruins of St. Pierre from the south. North and south walls less injured by eruption than east or west walls. Eruption on June 14th, 1902. Island of Martinique. Martinique on succeeding 361.C.slide.
361.C.2 Ejected block on Seche-Blanche plateau, near coast. Block is 30x24x22 ft. Mt. Pelee, south west side.
361.C.3 Ruins of the great distillery showing holes in the iron tanks due to the volcanic bombardment. St. Pierre, Martinique.
361.C.4 Nearer view of one of the holes of preceeding slide. The material is 1/4 inch boiler iron. tank of distillery, St. Pierre, Martinique.
361.C.5 Valley of the Roxelane River as it appeared May 22, 1902. Valley in north part of City of St. Pierre, Martinique.


361.D.1 Coast bluffs due to landslides; ash coating with thickness showing in foreground, over delta deposit of Wallibou River. Ash coating is white. La Soufriere, St. Vincent, from southwest.
361.D.2 Wind drift surface of newly fallen ashes on Richmond estate. 264 feet of ashes here. La Soufriere, southwest side.
361.D.3 Rabaka dry river valley showing ash bed where previously was gorge, 200 feet . Looks like a glacier from distance. La Soufriere St. Vincent, southeast side.
361.D.4 Trail to summit showing effects of volcanic blast. Bridle path there before eruptin. La Soufriere, St. Vincent, southeast.


361.E.1 Vesuvius and Monta Soma from Naples Harbor.
361.E.2 Vesuvius in eruption, April 26, 1872.
361.E.3 Inner cone of Vesuvius; lava cone and lava pinnacles.
361.E.4 Near view of Monta Soma; Vesuvius cone on right; shows structure of ash cone and dikes.


361.F.1 Map, base of Alaskan Penninsula, ash fall from Katmai, 1912.
361.F.2 Map of Katmai region and Valley of 10,000 Smokes, Alaska.
361.F.3 Katmai. The end of the ash fall at Kodiak.
361.F.4 Katmai. Ash-laden trees near Kodiak, August 26, 1912.
361.F.5 Katmai. The ash-loaded Katmai in 1915.
361.F.6 Katmai. The ash-laden Soluka Creek in 1915. Stream over-loaded and forced to spread far outside its original channel, has aggraded above its former flood-plain and killed the vegetation on the flood-plain.
361.F.7 Katmai. Ash-laden and aggrading Katmai River, 1915.
361.F.8 Ash accumulation on tributary to Soluka Creek. Stream laid ash now being removed as stream gradients become adjusted.
361.F.9 Katmai. Talus of ash in upper Katmai Valley. Trees in valley cut off by Katmai flood (due to breaking of landslide dam) at level of ash plain; amount of erosion since shown by height of protruding stumps.
361.F.10 Katmai. Reconstruction of Mt. Katmai as it was before the eruption.
361.F.11 Katmai. Mount Katmai, branch of Katmai River. Talus of ash in upper Katmai Valley. Trees in valley cut off by the Katmai flood (due to breaking of landslide dam) at level of ash plain; amount of erosion since shown by height of protruding stumps.
361.F.12 Katmai Crater after the eruptio. Opposite cliff 3700 feet above lake.
361.F.13 Katmai. Knife Peak, a volcano north of Katmai.
361.F.14 Katmai. Trident Volcano in 1916, southwest of Katmai. Steam on left from Novarupta
361.F.15 Katmai. Mt. Mageik Volcano southwest of Katmai.
361.F.16 Katmai Novarupta, a volcano west of Katmai formed in 1912. Throat choked by lava plug.
361.F.17 Katmai. Novarupta lava plug. Falling Mountain, probably a fault scarp, in distance across head of Valley of 10,000 Smokes which is to the right.
361.F.18 Katmai. Top of lava plug of Novarupta showing vertical concentric banding in disintegrating lava.
361.F.19 Katmai. Rim of Novarupta and head of Valley of 10,000 Smokes.
361.F.20 Katmai. The Valley of 10,000 Smokes.
361.F.21 Katmai. The Valley of 10,000 Smokes.
361.F.22 Katmai. Edge of ash flow cut away by stream near lower end of Valley of 10,000 Smokes, showing standing forest and buried burned off stumps. No. 361.F.23 is immediately to the right.
361.F.23 Katmai. Edge of ash flow cut away by stream near lower end of Valley of 10,000 Smokes, showing buried burned off stumps. No. 361.F.22 is immediately to the left.
361.F.24 Katmai. Valley of 10,000 Smokes. A vent pouring out steam which is transparent because uncondensed.
361.F.25 Katmai. Valley of 10,000 Smokes. Griggs frying bacon over a fumarole, steam invisible and supporting the pan and stick.
361.F.26 Katmai. A fumarole temporarily turned into a sputtering mud pot by rain water.
361.F.27 Katmai. Valley of 10.000 Smokes. Fumarole in front of Baked Mountain.
361.F.28 Katmai. Valley of 10,000 Smokes. One of the biggest fumaroles in valley. The arrows indicate men.
361.F.29 Katmai. The Valley of 10,000 Smokes.


361.G.1 Lassen Peak, Cal. from Manzanita Lake, in 1900, when it was supposed to be extinct.
361.G.2 lassen Peak, Cal. Six successive views of 11th eruption of June 14, 1914, 15 days after the first eruption. Camera had been focused on mountain in hopes of another eruption; six views in 20 minutes.
361.G.3 Lassen Peak, Cal. Great eruption of May 22, 1915. The cloud is 36,000 feet – 7 miles – high.
361.G.4 Lassen Peak, Cal. Great mud flow and flood which accompanied eruption of May 22, 1915. Hot Rock in foreground, carried from crater, was 18′ x 20′ x 14′. Since disintegrated. Country previously forested.
361.G.5 Lassen Peak, Cal. Mud flow of May 22, 1915 was followed by a horizontal blast toward the northeast, which leveled much of timber shown in preceding view. View from same Hot Rock.
361.G.6 Lassen Peak, Cal. Path of much flow and blast, prior to eruption.
361.G.7 Lassen Peak, Cal. Path of mud flow and blast, same point as slide 361.G.6.
361.G.8 Lassen Peak, Cal. Trees leveled in the path of the blast. If they had been covered by ash, in ground water zone, might have been petrified.


363.-.1 Lava Plain, souther Idaho.
363.-.2 A deep valley in the lava plain of southern India.


367.-.1 Volcanic tufa; early Tertiary (?) 25 miles south Alpine, Brewster Co., Texas.


368.-.1 Gas vent in lava surface near Sunset Mountain, Arizona.


369.-.1 Muir’s Butte, California.
369.-.2 Dissected volcanic cone; Mt. Drum, Copper River region, Alaska.
369.-.3 Mount Shasta from Edgewater, California.
369.-.4 Mount Shasta from the north after first snowfall of September, 1884.
369.-.5 Mount Ranier from Steilacoom plains, near Tacoma, Wash. 18th Annual, part 3.
369.-.6 Gibraltar a remnant of the cone of Mt. Rainier. 18th Annual, part 3.
369.-.7 Mount Ararat, Asia Minor.
369.-.8 Mount Hood, from Lost Lake Oregon.
369.-.9 Spanish Peaks from La Veta, New Mexico.
369.-.10 Popocatapetl, from Sacra Morta, Mexico (Rejected)
369.-.11 Part of crater of ash cone, from west on outer slope with highest summit. Puy de Cantal.
369.-.12 Inner slopes of ash cone, 3/4 mile from summit. Plomb de Cantal, Auvergne.