Channel Characters | Run-off – Floods | Flood Control | Miami Conservancy District | Mississippi River | Muskingum Conservancy District | Channels, Pot Holes, Joint Influence, Undercutting | Influence of Vegetation | Badlands | Waterfalls, Rapids | Youthful Valleys | Niagara | Yellowstone | Colorado Canyon | Au Sable | St. Lawrence | Lateral Valley Erosion | Euclid Creek, Cleveland, O. | Rocky River, Cleve., O. | Mature Valleys and Flood Plains | Egypt | Meandering Oxbows | Levees | Braiding | Deltas | Alluvial Fans | Basin Filling | Lop Basin, Turkestan” | Basin Filling, Death Valley, Cal. | Terraces | Buttes and Mesas | Stream and Peneplain N+1 Cycle | Appalachians | Water Power | Transportation



27.-.1 Erosion of nearly level limestone path by force of exceptionally heavy volume of run-off. Storm of Jul. 9. 1917. 66 inches of rain; quick fall. East Boulevard, between Belt Line R.R. and Euclid Ave. Cleveland, Ohio.
27.-.2 Side cutting, result of misdirected culvert. Camera rests on one end of destroyed retaining wall, other end in bank, right center. View down stream. Storms of June 30, & July 9, 1917. Euclid Boulevard and Murray Hill Road, Cleveland, Ohio. Negative: J.E. Hyde #212
27.-.3 Damage by storms of June 30 & July 9, 1917. Erosion of rip-rap by normal lateral tear of flood. View up-stream. Euclid Boulevard below Murray Hill Road, Cleveland, Ohio. Negative: J.E. Hyde. No. 213
27.-.4 Debris dropped at mouth of a culvert by spreading current. View down-stream from culvert. Shows “shooting power” of culvert. Debris since removed by less powerful floods with smaller loads, block at a time. Storms of June 30 and July 9, 1917. Euclid Boulevard and Murray Hill Road, Cleveland, Ohio. Negative: J.E. Hyde. No. 210
27.-.5 Damage by storm of June 30 and July 9, 1917. 66 inches of rain. Run-off from Railroad ditch. Flagging washed out but had been replaced before picture was taken. Nickel Plate R.R. and Euclid Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio. Negative: J.E. Hyde. No. 208
27.-.6 Stream flowing from lakes, normal stage; channel adapted to normal stage only because there are no floods. Jackson, Mich. Negative: J.E. Hyde. No. 724
27.-.7 Dry bed of stormy water channel, semi-arid region. Calamity Creek, 25 miles south Alpine, Brewater County, Texas. Negative: J.E. Hyde.
27.-.8 Channel adapted to heavy floods, valley of Kentucky river, Irvine, KY. Negative: J.E. Hyde.
27.-.9 Channel adapted to moderate range in volume. A road ran along the bluff on right prior to March, 1913, when it was removed by lateral cutting in flood. Scioto River, Chillicothe, Ohio. Negative: J.E. Hyde.
27.-.10 Debris of flood of storm June 28, 1924. (The Lorain storm). Sagamore Creek, Cuyahoga River, near Bedford, Ohio. Negative: J.E. Hyde – 1178
27.-.11 Channel of stream in nearly its natural state, bordered by brush, partly obstructed by fallen stems. Indian Creek, between Waynesburg and Canton, O., just above road crossing. Sept. 1930. Source: J.E. Hyde Negative: J.E.H. 2698


29.-.1 Flood in the Valley of the Ohio River. New Albany. Indiana.
29.-.2 Break in levee and river overflowing flood plain. Great flood on lower Mississippi River.
29.-.3 Scene, after a break in the levee, on flood plain of Mississippi.
29.-.4 Flood on Otter Creek, rutland, Vt. Nov. 1927. Neg. Arthur Keith, Wash. D.C.
29.-.5 Average rainfall determined from recorded rainfall at all weather stations in stream basin above Dayton. Total run off is measured run off at Dayton distributed over entire area of stream basin above Dayton. Ratio–percent is percent of total rainfall which ran off past Dayton. Source: Engineer. News Record Nov. 1, 1934 Neg: W.R.U. No. 383



31.B.1 Miami Conservancy District. Map showing location of restraining reservoirs.
31.B.2 Miami Conservancy District. Taylorsville Dam, Miami river, from upstream side, looking west. National Highway on crest.
31.B.3 Miami Conservancy District. Taylorsville Dam. Combined outflow channel and overflow spillway, latter for protection of dam in very extraordinary floods. Under flood conditions, water may back up only to the level of the upper sill.
31.B.4 Miami Conservancy District. Taylorsville Dam. View upstream from crest of dam showing Miami River, the lower end of ponding basin, and on right, till filling of valley excavated to build dam.
31.B.5 Miami Conservancy District. Englewood Dam, Stillwater Creek, from upstream side looking E. from level of highest possible backwater. No. 31.B.6 is from same station, and to right. Length on crest, 4700 ft., height, 125 ft., width at base, 785 ft., possible depth of flood water about 100 ft.
31.B.6 Miami Conservancy District. Englewood Dam. Overflow spillway for protection to dam in case of most extraordinary flood. From same point as 31.B.5.
31.B.7 Miami Conservancy District. Englewood Dam. Outflow channel from downstream, shows full height of Dam.
31.B.8 Miami Conservancy Distrct. Englewood Dam. Stillwater Valley above dam, flood plain excavated for material to build it. this whole area to the distant hills, flooded in storm stages.


31.C.1 Flood areas of the Mississippi River flood plain below the mouth of the Ohio River.
31.C.2 Artificial levee systems of the Mississippi River below the Ohio River, 1922.
31.C.3 Misssissippi River in flood, May 1922. Levee maintenance below Arkansas City. Mattress backing and bulkheading at worst point of Fulton Slide.
31.C.4 Mississippi River in flood, may 1922. Levee maintenance below Arkansas City. 6 ft. of sacks at levee foot at Fulton Slide.
31.C.5 Mississippi River in flood, May 1922. Levee maintenance below Arkansas City. Boggy Bayou. Later the whole area was mattressed.
31.C.6 Mississippi in flood, May 1922. Levee Maintenance, below Arkansas City.
31.C.7 Mississippi in flood, May 1922. Levee Maintenance, below Arkansas City.
31.C.8 Mississippi in flood, May 1922. Levee Maintenance, below Arkansas City.
31.C.9 Mississippi River breaking levee, Poydras Crevasse, 800 ft. long, early stage, 12 mi. below New Orleans, April 27, 1922.
31.C.10 The Mississippian System.
31.C.11 The source of the Mississippi, Lake Itaska, Minn.
31.C.12 Break in levee of Mississippi River. Spring, 1929.
31.C.13 Mississippi River Flood, April-May 1927. Teale Cabin Crevasse, just north of Vicksburg, Miss. (said to be on east side of river) two hours after break. April 1927.
31.C.14 Mississippi River Flood, April-May, 1927. Gap in levee made by steamer in “Inspector”, unmanageable in heavy currents. Junior, La. April 1927.
31.C.15 Mississippi River Flood, April-May, 1927. Grenville, Miss. river right, levee center, lowlands and town on left flooded by a break in levee. April 25, 1927.
31.C.16 Mississippi River Flood, April-May, 1927. Beardstown, Illinois. Top of levee, river left, lowlands right flooded from a break. April 25, 1927.
31.C.17 Mississippi River Flood, April-May, 1927. Refugees on levee crest, dinner line-up. 6000 persons so accomodated at this place by Red Cross. Vicksburg, Miss. April 27, 1927.
31.C.18 Mississippi River Flood, April-May, 1927. Mississippi at New Orleans, view northwest. Ship Canal in foreground, New Orleans middle distance. River at flood stage, view top of levees, 10-15 feet above plains. Levees holding. A flood wave many feet higher up stream was expected in few days on river here bankfull. May 1, 1927.
31.C.19 Mississippi River Flood, April-May, 1927. Blasting the bankfull levee opposite Caernarvon, La., April 29, 1927, to lower river and protect New Orleans from an approaching much higher crest. Water flowing through first two breaks.
31.C.20 Mississippi River Flood, April-May, 1927. Early stage, three artificial breaks in levee on east side of bank-full river, opposite Caernarvon, La., 12 miles below New Orleans to protect city. Just below Poydras crevasse of 1922. April 29, 1927.
31.C.21 Mississippi River Flood, April-May, 1927. Later stage, artificial break in levee, off Caernarvon, below New Orleans. April 29, 1927.
31.C.22 Very early stage in break in artificial levee of Coldwater River at Marks. Flood Plain of Mississippi Ricver, Yazoo Basin, Northwestern Mississippi. At this time, January 1935, an area 40 miles by 15 to 30 miles was flooded and drove thousands from their homes.
31.C.23 Mississippi flood plain below Cairo. Proposed new flood control works, 1935. Estimated cost $313,000,000.


31.D.1 Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District. 15 flood control dams will reduce flood crest on Ohio River, at Marietta 5 ft., at Cincinnati, 2 ft. Construction began 1934.


37.-.1 Group of pot-holes, Tuolumne River, California.
37.-.2 Old pot-holes in post-glacial gorge. Watkins Glen, New York.
37.-.3 Pot-holes in post-glacial gorge. Watkins Glen, New York.
37.-.4 Rapid undercutting by small stream, shown by bared roots, Gates’ Mill, Ohio. April, 1922.
37.-.5 Lateral erosion by stream shown by undercutting of wall. Within two yers, the undercut portion was washed away. September, 1920. West Branch, Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio.
37.-.6 Stream undercutting bridge abuttment, Beaver Creek, above Amherst, O. Nov. 1 November, 1922.


40.-.1 Slight damage by heavy stream on exceptionally steep bank where sod was good. Storm of July 9, 1917, Euclid Boulevard and Nickel Plate railroad, Cleveland, Ohio.


41.-.1 Badlands of White river, Tertiary. Northeast end of Fairbairn, Washington County, South Dakota.
41.-.2 Badlands scenery, rocks of Eocene age, Wind River, Wyoming.
41.-.3 Hoodoo Temple, Hoodoo Basin, Yellowstone park, Wyoming.
41.-.4 Hoodoos, Hoodoo Basin, Yellowstone park, Wyoming.
41.-.5 Hoodoos near Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming.
41.-.6 Gully washes in weathered Illinoian gravel, Chillicothe, Ohio.


45.-.1 Low water at Ithaca Falls. Ithaca, New York.
45.-.2 Flood at Ithaca Falls. Ithaca, New York.
45.-.3 Trip Hammer Falls, Ithaca, New York.
45.-.4 Fall creek, Ithaca, New York.
45.-.5 Glens Falls, Hudson River, New York.
45.-.6 Looking down canyon, Snake River, Shoshone Falls, Idaho.
45.-.7 Shoshone Falls, Snake River, Idaho.
45.-.8 Cataracts of the Nile.
45.-.9 Cataracts of the Nile.
45.-.10 Waterfall; details controlled by jointing. Locality unknown.


47.A.1 Looking down Gorner Gorge. Zermatt, Switzerland.
47.A.2 Grand River Canyon, Colorado.
47.A.3 Grand River Canyon, Utah.
47.A.4 Canyon del Muerte, Arizona.
47.A.5 View from Old Dobbins House, down Black Water River, West Va.
47.A.6 Doe River Gorge, Tennessee.
47.A.7 Deerfied Valley, Massachusetts.
47.A.8 Valley of the Elb, Germany.
47.A.10 Mountain Valley and Stream, High Andes, Peru.


47.B.1 Birdseye view of Niagara.
47.B.2 Ideal birdseye view of Niagara River.
47.B.3 Rapids above the Falls, from Canadian side, Niagara River.
47.B.4 View from above the cataract, Horseshoe Falls, from Canadian side, Niagara River.
47.B.5 Rapids at brink of Falls, Niagara River.
47.B.6 Niagara Falls from Prospect Point.
47.B.7 Fine cloud effect. Looking over brink of American Falls, from Prospect Point, Niagara.
47.B.8 Under the cliffs of Goat Island, entrance to the Cave of the Winds, Niagara River.
47.B.9 Ideal section, showing strata, at Niagara Falls, N.Y.
47.B.10 Horseshoe Falls from Canadian side of Suspension Bridge, Niagara River.
47.B.11 American falls from Canadian side, Niagara River.
47.B.12 American falls from Canadian side, Niagara River.
47.B.13 Horseshoe Falls from Prospect Point, Niagara River.
47.B.14 Horseshoe Falls from steel arch bridge, Niagara River.
47.B.15 American Falls and Gorge from Luna Island, Niagara River.
47.B.16 Upper end Whirpool Rapids (end of Nipissing Great Lakes stage) Niagara River, New York.
47.B.17 Whirpool Rapids, Niagara River.
47.B.18 Looking over the Whirlpool and Gorge from Canadian side, Niagara River.
47.B.19 Birdseye view of Foster’s Flats, Niagara River.
47.B.20 Horseshoe Falls and Terrapin Tower, winter, Niagara River.
47.B.21 Niagara Falls in winter, Below Goat Island.


47.C.1 Falls of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming.
47.C.2 Yellowstone Canyon, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming.
47.C.3 Yellowstone Canyon, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming.
47.C.4 Yellowstone River in gorge just below Lower Fall.
47.C.5 Talus slope on east wall of Yellowstone Canyon, to left of 47.C.4. Evergreens growing below cliffs that are weathering less rapidly, in places less over run by talus.
47.C.6 Yellowstone River, entrenched about 20 feet, above the Upper Fall. Excepting the stream banks, the topography is that of the volcanic plateau.
47.C.7 Yellowstone River, several miles above the Falls, unintrenched flowing in original depression in the volcanic plateau.
47.C.8 Yellowstone River just below Yellowstone Lake, unintrenched in volcanic plateau. “Hayden’s Valley”. Absaroka range in distance.


47.D.1 Cambrian Sandstones resting on Pre-Cambrian granite, Grand Canyon of the Colorado River.
47.D.2 Sandstone wall, Canyon of the Colorado River, Arizona.
47.D.3 Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, Arizona.
47.D.4 Looking down the Grand canyon of the Colorado river, Arizona.


47.E.1 Au Sable Chasm, New York.
47.E.2 The Sentinel, Au Sable Chasm, New york, showing effect of joining.


47.F.1 St. Lawrence River at Kingston, Ontario. Distant valley wall of rock descends precipitously into river.
47.F.2 Valley wall of St. Lawrence River east of Kingston, Ontario. Largely pre-ordovician topography on pre-cambrian rocks disclosed by post glacial river erosion.
47.F.3 St. Lawrence River east of Kingston, Ontario. Thousand Islands, pre-ordovician hillock of pre-cambrian rock disclosed by river erosion, or bosses developed by glacial erosion.
47.F.4 Map showing gradient of St. Lawrence River system with points where power development is possible and improvement for transportation is necessary.


48.A.1 Channel of Vermilion River, abandoned about 1915 by lateral shift of stream. Above Rugby, Ohio. Cleveland shale.
48.A.2 Valley widening, Tinker’s Creek, justbelow Pennsylvania R. R., Bedford, Ohio. October 1928.


48.B.1 Intersection of two arcs of valley wall, result of two successive episodes of lateral erosion. Creek is now on left bank. April, 1923. West Branch Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio.
48.B.2 Undercut valley wall, result of lateral erosion and valley widening. This is same band as shown in left of 48.B.1. April 1923. Cleveland Shale on Chagrin. West Branch Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio.
48.B.3 Overhanging trees at top of bank shown in 48.B.2 showing rate of lateral erosion. April 1923.
48.B.4 Overhanging trees at top of bank shown in 48.B.2 showing rate of lateral erosion. April 1923. West Branch Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio.
48.B.5 Bank formed by lateral stream cutting. Photo probably made about 1910, and some years before 1915. See 48.B.6 for a later view. Cleveland shale on Chagrin, West Branch Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio.
48.B.6 West Branch of Euclid Creek near cleveland, Ohio. Cleveland on Chagrin shales. Bank formed by lateral stream cutting. Stream abandoned bank about 1910, and since filling with talus. Photo taken November 1919. See 48.B.6 for some bank with stream against it.
48.B.7 Main stream, Euclid Creek. Landslide topography on an old weathered valley wall.


48.C.1 Rapidly undercutting wall of Rocky River. As late as 1924 this wall was gentle enough for boys to slide down. By 1930 it had become so much steeper, according to one of them, Ivan VanHorn, that it could only be traversed with great care. This is due, in part, to sharper flood peaks caused by storm sewers and “improved” channel in Metropolitan Park. East wall, Riverside Dr. eastward to Madison.
48.C.2 Rapidly undercutting wall of Rocky River with a moderate rise of River, in contrast to slide No. 48.C.1. May, 1928.
48.C.3 Newly undercut east wall of Rocky River where it intersects old, tree-covered wall. Riverside Dr. north of Madison follows top. Sewage disposal plant on floodplain on right. May, 1928.
48.C.4 Rocky River looking S., upstream, undercutting alluvium of flood plain on its east bank, and rocky wall on distant right. Square concrete block in river on right is last 4 basement piers of the Ferris Wheel of the German village of about 1900. It is in its original position and the river has undercut this much in thirty years. May 8, 1928. Rocky River, just above the Detroit Street Bridge. See slide 48.C.5 taken May 23, 1928.
48.C.5 A Rocky River, looking upstream from exactly the same place as 48.C.4 but 15 days later. The tree fell without any appreciable rise in the river. May 23, 1929.
48.C.6 Rocky River channel across bar formed by flood water at head of back water of Lake. Stream flows right to left. Material is sandstone slabs from Chagrin and debris from Lakewood City dump at end of Madison Avenue. The slope of the slabs upstream is typical. This bar has been built entirely in 15 years. Its growth is in part responsible for the changes shown in slides 48.C.4 and 5. Rocky River above Detroit Street bridge. May, 1928.
48.C.7 Rocky River bar formed by flood water at head of backwater of lake. Sandstone block 5’10” by 1’8″ by 1’2″. Rocky River above Detroit Street bridge. May, 1928.
48.C.8 Rocky River channel, undercutting aluvium on left, depositing stream wash on right on inside of bend. The latter is of characteristic size above the city dump at the end of Madison Ave. Rocky River, southward above Hilliard Road Bridge.
48.C.9 Rocky River, downstream from Cedar Point bridge. On left, old tree-covered valley wall before river broke through neck at Cedar Point. Feb. 1916.


49.-.1 Grand Junction, Grand River, Colorado.
49.-.2 Mature Valley of Muskingum River above McConnelsville, O.
49.-.3 Mature Valley of Dry Cimarron River, cut into the Great Plains, which is at the level of the hill tops, underlain by Dakota S. S. Extreme N.E. Corner of New Mexico.
49.-.4 Mature Valley of Dry Cimarron River, cut into the Great Plains, which is at the level of the hill tops. Flood plain alluvial clay (adobe) with rock floor of valley beneath. The trench has been cut in the last 40 years, most recent geological episode. Extreme N.E. corner, New Mexico.
49.A.5 Westward directly across Scioto Valley, 2 miles wide. Above Waverly, O.


49.B.1 The lower 1200 miles of the Nile. Map.
49.B.2 Nile Valley at head of Delta, 120 miles inland, from summit of Great Pyramid, east southeast, delta to left, Sahara behind you to right. River in distant left and just below valley wall. Traces of old channels in foreground, which are filled by inundations.
49.B.3 Nile Valley at Thebes, 500 miles above mouth. From western wall southward up the valley, eastern wall 15 miles distant. One of the most fertile parts of Egypt. Foreground: tombs in cliffs, above the Ramesseum, tomb of Rameses II.
49.B.4 Temple of Karnak, Thebes, Egypt, looking east, Nile in rear. The great court with the hypostyle hall of the 19th dynasty behind it. Two great fallen masses were the two towers of 2nd pylon, built in 19th dynasty, 1350-1205 B.C. Statue of Rameses II (19th Dynasty.) Distant obelisk is of Thutmose I, beginning of 18th Dynasty.
49.B.5 Temple of Karnak, Thebes, Egypt. Middle aisle of great Hypostyle Hall of 19th Dynasty. Obelisk of Thutmose I, 18th Dynasty, 1420-1411 B. C. His inscription in the central larger strip. The side strips are by Rameses IV and Rameses VI, decadent rulers 250 to 300 years later, unable to erect their own obelisks.
49.B.6 Temple of Karnak, Thebes, Egypt. Colonnade of the great Hypostyle Hall of 19th Dynasty (1350-1205 B.C.), 132 columns, 65 feet high.
49.B.7 Temple of Karnak, Thebes, Egypt. Gate of Ptolemy IX (96-89 B.C.)
49.B.8 Nile Valley at 1st Cataract, 650 miles above mouth. Ancient Egypt lay below this point. View down river from Elephant Isle and Temple of Philae, the frontier of Egypt for long periods. Seyene, is in the vicinity, the source of the granite (seyenite) for many of the large monuments erected as far as the head of the delta. In distance the Assuan Dam in construction, which raised the river 65 feet and partly submerged Philae.
49.B.9 Nilometer on S.E. side of island of Elephantine, first cataract, 650 miles above mouth of Nile, at least 2000 years old. The old marks, and modern Arabic set in white. At Nilometer, second cataract, between 2000 and 1788 B. C., the river rose 20 to 25 feet above levels now reached.
49.B.10 Nile River at Abu Simbel, 850 miles above mouth. View eastward from rock cut temple of Rameses (19th Dynasty, 1292-1225 B. C.) which is repeatedly overrun by sand from Sahara.


50.1 The Missouri River, Belmont Bend, Missouri.
50.2 River flood plain, cane fields, Burnside, Louisiana.
50.-.1 Ray Brook, Adirondacks, Bloomingdale, New York.
51.-.2 Diagram of oxbow meanders.
51.-.3 Stream meanders, Crooked Creek, Long Valley, California.
51.-.4 Ox-bow cut-off, Connecticut River, Northampton, Massachusetts.


53.-.1 The levee at Baton Rouge, Louisiana.


57.-.1 Over loaded stream in late summer. Platte Rive, Lexington, Neb. Topog. Atlas, No. 2.


59.-.1 Rhone delta in Lake Geneva, Switzerland.
59.-.2 Deltas at Silvaplana, will eventually divide lake as at Interlaken, Switz.
59.-.3 Delta of the Chelan River where it enters the Columbia, Washington.
59.-.4 Delta of the Yahtse River, Alaska.
59.-.5 Delta of the Yahtse River, from above ice tunnel, looking south, Alaska.
59.-.6 Map of lower Mississippi, to show threatened capture of lower part by the Atchafalaya.


61.-.1 Alluvial fan with modern fan cones, mouth of Aztec Gulch, Rico Mountains, Colorado.
61.-.2 Diagram of alluvial fan of a dry-climate stream.
61.-.3 Airplane view across piedmont plain (forested) lying east of Andes showing braided streams slowly shifting in their channels and aggrading, due to heavy load from Andes. Old trees on islands indicate slowness of shifting. Bolivia, Rio Chapar??, within 100 miles of foot hills of Andes. One of hundreds of heads of the Amazon, 1500 miles distant down the Madeira River, and 2500 miles above mouth of Amazon. A second headwater stream in the distance.


63.-.1 Valley filling in dry climate. Quitnam Mountains and desert basin, southwest of Sierra Blanca, Texas Physiog. Atlas 3.
63.-.2 Old lake floor. Panorama of Salt Lake City, Utah.
63.-.3 Lake Lahontan sediments, Humboldt Canon, Nevada. Monog. xl.


(See under Climate Changes for additional slides on region)

63.B.1 The Lop or Tarim Basin, Chinese Turkestan.
63.B.2 The Piedmont gravel slope, south margin Lop Basin. Chinese Turkestan.


63.C.1 Death Valley from Dante’s Point. Valley bottom 250 feet below sea level. Salt beds, playa deposits and dry stream courses. (Colorist never saw the region.) Width to foot of piedmont fans opposite, 6 miles, to foot of mountains, 10 miles. Mountains rise to altitudes of 10,000 feet.
63.C.2 Death Valley. “Devil’s golf Course”. Salt and playa deposits 250 below sea level.


65.-.1 Terrace of degradation, Madison Valley, Montana.
65.-.2 Stream terraces of sub-glacial stream. Muir Glacier, Alaska.
65.-.3 Buried forest in outwash gravels. Muir Glacier, Alaska.


72.-.1 Red beds capped by layer of gypsum. Red Butte, northeast of Cambria, Wyoming. Black Hills.
72.-.2 Monument Rock, Gove County, Kansas.
72.-.3 “The Lighthouse” outlier, central Wisconsin.


75.A.1 A rejuvenated valley. Locality unknown.
75.A.2 The Laurentian peneplain, Pre-paleozoic in age bevelling Pre-cambrian gneisses, marbles and intrusives. Verona, 30 miles north of Kingston, Ontario.
75.A.3 The Laurentian peneplain, Pre-paleozoic in age, bevelling Pre-cambrian gneisses, marbles, and intrusives. View N.W.


75.B.1 Highlands of northern New Jersey.
75.B.2 Looking east, from Port Putnam, above West Point, Hudson River, N.Y.
75.B.3 Mount Monadnock from Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire.
75.B.4 Otter Pond and Kearsarge Mountain, New Hampshire.


91.-.1 The harnessing of a waterfall for power development. Rjukanfos Plant. Norway.


93.B.1 The first Welland Canal around Niagara Falls. St. Catherine’s, Ontario. Now used for small power development for manufacturing plants.
93.B.2 The second Welland Canal, around Niagara Falls. Thorold, Ont., August 1922.
93.B.3 The New Welland Canal in construction. Second Welland Canal on right, August, 1922.